Genome editing tools have been available for a while, but the CRISPR method offers far more precision and ease of use.  Although it is easier to knock out targeted genes by producing deletions than re-writing them, it is clear we are on the cusp of new era in biological science and medicine.

The next great cooperative research program will develop the methods to synthesize large DNA molecules and assemble them into functional units. When these construction tools are perfected the efforts will shift in scope from gene editing to true genomic engineering.